Analog CCTV SystemsMay 3, 2018
|The camera is divided into two categories: digital camera and analog camera. Analog cameras convert analog video signals generated by video capture devices into digital signals and store them in computers. The video signal captured by the analog camera must be converted to a digital mode by a specific video capture card and compressed before it can be converted to a computer. The digital camera can capture images directly and send them to the computer via serial, parallel, or USB interfaces. The camera on the computer market is basically based on digital cameras.The digital camera is mainly based on a USB digital camera using a new data transmission interface. Most of the products currently on the market are such products. There is also a product that works with video capture cards, but it is not currently mainstream. The camera with USB interface supports true plug and play. Even if you plug in the device while working on the computer, the system will immediately report and find the appropriate driver for it; moreover, the power supply used by the USB camera can be directly Motherboard USB interface, no longer need a clumsy independent power converter; USB interface provides 12Mbps transmission bandwidth, transmission speed is much higher than the computer’s existing peripheral ports. Compared with the serial port, the USB interface is about 100 times faster; compared with the parallel port, the USB interface is nearly 10 times faster. It is not difficult to see from here that a computer camera with a USB interface has a great advantage in terms of speed.
When selecting a camera, the lens is very important. According to the category of light-sensitive devices, cameras used on the market today are mostly CCD and CMOS. Among them, the CCD (Charge Coupled Device) is a high-end technology component used in image capturing and image scanning, and the CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) is mostly used in some low-end video products. However, such positioning does not mean that there is a big difference between the two when using a specific camera. In fact, after technological transformation, the gap between the actual effects of CCD and CMOS has been greatly reduced. The CMOS manufacturing cost and power consumption are lower than CCD, so many camera manufacturers use CMOS lenses
However, due to its own physical characteristics, the CCD image quality and CMOS still have a certain distance. In the same pixel CCD imaging is often very good transparency, sharpness, color reproduction, exposure can guarantee the basic accuracy. The CMOS products are often transparent and have poor color reproduction capabilities. The exposure is also not very good. Therefore, we should pay more attention to techniques when using cameras, especially those using CMOS chips:
First of all, do not use in the backlight environment (this CCD is the same), in particular, do not point directly to the sun, or the “magnifying glass burning ants” tragedy will happen on your camera. Second, the ambient light should not be too weak, otherwise it will directly affect the imaging quality. There are two ways to overcome this difficulty. One is to increase the ambient brightness, and the other is to choose a product with a minimum minimum illumination. Now some cameras can already reach 5lux (lux is the international unit of illumination, equivalent to one square meter). Such as Samsung’s AnyCam M10.
The last thing to notice is the proper use of the lens zoom. Do not underestimate this. With the correct adjustment, the camera can also have the function of a camera chip.
. The CCD (Charge Coupled Device), or “charge coupled device,” is described in megapixels. The number of megapixels in a digital camera specification refers to the resolution of the CCD. The CCD is a light-sensitive semiconductor chip that is used to capture graphics and is widely used in scanners, copiers, and filmless cameras. Similar to the principle of the film, light passes through a lens and projects the graphic information onto the CCD. Unlike film, however, CCDs have neither the ability to record graphical data nor the ability to be permanently stored or even have “exposure” capabilities. All graphics data will be fed into an “analog-digital” converter, a signal processor, and a storage device (such as a memory chip or a memory card) without stopping. The CCD has a variety of sizes and shapes, the largest being 2 x 2 square inches.
Digital camera basics new links Article link: China Chemical Instrument Network http://www.chem17.com/Tech_news/Detail/20638.html First, CCD 1. The CCD (Charge Coupled Device), or “charge coupled device,” is described in megapixels. The number of megapixels in a digital camera specification refers to the resolution of the CCD. The CCD is a light-sensitive semiconductor chip that is used to capture graphics and is widely used in scanners, copiers, and filmless cameras. Similar to the principle of the film, light passes through a lens and projects the graphic information onto the CCD. Unlike film, however, CCDs have neither the ability to record graphical data nor the ability to be permanently stored or even have “exposure” capabilities. All graphics data will be fed into an “analog-digital” converter, a signal processor, and a storage device (such as a memory chip or a memory card) without stopping. The CCD has a variety of sizes and shapes, the largest being 2 x 2 square inches. 2. CCD imaging principle CCD imaging process is as follows: CCD surface coated silicon semiconductor photosensitive elements capture photons and generate photo-generated electrons, these electrons are accumulated in the insulating layer under the CCD, and then exported by the control circuit in a serial manner In the analog-to-digital circuit, an image is formed by an imaging circuit such as a DSP. The biggest difference between fast scan and slow scan lies in the difference in speed and circuit system
Fast scan exports the frequency of electron very fast, in order to be able to reach the refresh rate of the video level, but this will cause the electron to lose, the noise increases, the photoelectron electronic empty is not thorough; And the slow scan is opposite, its circuit design emphasizes on the electron accumulation of the electron In terms of protection, the frequency of derivation is not high, but the loss and loss of electrons during the outgoing process are guaranteed to be extremely small. Its analog-to-digital converter has a high dynamic range and sensitivity, which ensures that the signal conversion process is not distorted, and at the same time, in order to reduce thermal effects. The noise generated is generally cooled using the Cooling system.
After reading the above explanation, we can know why the professional-grade scientific research cameras are so expensive, starting from the material and area of the CCD photosensitive layer, to the accumulation of photoelectron electrons, to the electronic derivation circuit, transmission circuit, analog-to-digital conversion circuit, and images. Display circuits, Cooling circuits, each step of the professional-level research camera technology and civilian-level different, the cost is in the dozens of times to several hundred times. There is only one purpose, professional camera can collect all the light signals as completely as possible. In general, civilian cameras or digital cameras can only reflect light signals below 50%.
Evaluation of the basic indicators of the CCD include signal-to-noise ratio, cooling temperature, pixel values, etc. 3.1 Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) Signal-to-noise ratio truly reflects the camera’s detection capability. All CCD camera manufacturers try to maximize the signal (which can reach the number of full wells) to minimize the noise while improving the performance of the camera. SNR = Full Well Electronics / Noise Electronics = Dynamic Range = Maximum Gray Scale = 2 Bits 3.2 Cooling Temperature In the same CCD with full well electronics, lowering the CCD noise can improve the CCD monitoring capability. The thermal or dark current is a noise to the CCD, and the noise can be basically eliminated by the deep-cooled Peltier in the Cool CCD. In exposure for more than 5-10 seconds, the CCD chip will heat up, there is no chip for the cooling device, “hot” or white pixels will cover the image, the image can be seen everywhere snow. The camera at -20°C can capture images for up to 5 minutes and the camera at -40°C can take over 1 hour. CCD structure design, digital methods, etc. will affect the generation of noise. By improving the structure and optimizing methods, noise generation can also be reduced
3.3 Pixel Area This indicator is an important indicator in the chip. The larger the pixel area, the more sensitive to light. Because there are more electrons in the pixel area, more signals can be generated. Larger pixels increase sensitivity and smaller pixels increase resolution. To increase the image quality, it is necessary to increase the pixels of the CCD. Therefore, in the case of a certain CCD size, adding pixels means that the photodiodes in the pixels are reduced. We know that the smaller the area of a unit pixel, the lower the sensitometric performance, the lower the signal-to-noise ratio, and the narrower the dynamic range, so this method cannot increase the resolution without limit, so if we do not increase the CCD area and blindly increase Resolution will only cause deterioration of image quality. However, if you want to maintain the existing image quality while increasing the CCD pixels, you must increase the total area of the CCD on the basis of at least keeping the area of the unit pixels not decreasing. At present, larger CCDs are difficult to process and manufacture, and the yield is relatively low. Therefore, the cost has not been reduced. This contradiction is difficult to overcome for the CCD.
CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) is a “complementary metal oxide semiconductor.” It is an important chip in the computer system, and it saves a lot of data needed for system guidance. The CMOS sensor is convenient for large-scale production, and it is fast and has a low cost. It is one of the key development directions of digital cameras. Third, several important parameters 1. White Balance Under different light sources, the color of the photograph will be color cast due to the difference in color temperature. For example, when the color temperature is low, the red and yellow light contents in the light are high, the color of the photographed photograph will be reddish, and the yellow color will be high. When the color document is high, the blue and green colors in the light will be more, and the photograph will be blueish and greenish. At this time, it needs to be corrected by the white balance function. The principle is to control the brightness of the red, green and blue ternary colors in the light so that the maximum light position in the image can reach pure white, which can make other colors accurate.
3. The method of increasing the pixel size of an image without increasing pixels. This is a term used in computer graphics to describe the number of colors that a generated image can contain. “8-bit depth” means that the image contains only 256 colors. Today’s digital cameras have a color depth of 8 bits for each color. Since the color of each pixel is a mixture of red, green, and blue colors, the image contains 256 × 256 × 256 colors, a total of 167 million, which is the so-called 24-bit color. 4. TWAIN This is a very common word in digital photography. TWAIN refers to a special kind of software that allows other TWAIN-compliant software to share image resources. For example, PaintShopPro, which is a good image-processing shareware, works with TWAIN devices. So you can Us e the digital camera directly in PaintShopPro. TWAIN devices include scanners, fax machines, and of course, digital cameras
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